The "equal tempered scale" was developed for keyboard instruments, such as the piano, so that they could be played equally well (or badly) in any key. It is a compromise tuning scheme. The equal tempered system uses a constant frequency multiple between the notes of the chromatic scale. Hence, playing in any key sounds equally good (or bad, depending on your point of view).

There are other temperaments which have been put forth over the years, such as the Pythagorean scale, the Mean-tone scale, and the Werckmeister scale. For more information on these you might consult "The Physics of Sound," by R. E. Berg and D. G. Stork (Prentice Hall, NJ, 1995). For an interesting discussion about the historical development of the equal tempered scale, you might read "How Equal Temperament Ruined Harmony," by Ross W. Duffin (W.W. Norton & Co., NY, 2007). For a very complete list of historical temperaments, see the book by Owen Jorgensen listed at the bottom of this page. A table showing a comparison of one meantone temperament with equal temperament can be found here.

The table below shows the frequency ratios for notes tuned in the Just and Equal temperament scales. For the equal temperament scale, the frequency of each note in the chromatic scale is related to the frequency of the notes next to it by a factor of the twelfth root of 2 (1.0594630944....). For the Just scale, the notes are related to the fundamental by rational numbers and the semitones are not equally spaced. The most pleasing sounds to the ear are usually combinations of notes related by ratios of small integers, such as the fifth (3/2) or third (5/4). The Just scale is constructed based on the octave and an attempt to have as many of these "nice" intervals as possible. In contrast, one can create scales in other ways, such as a scale based on the fifth only.

Interval | Ratio to Fundamental Just Scale |
Ratio to Fundamental Equal Temperament |
---|---|---|

Unison | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

Minor Second | 25/24 = 1.0417 | 1.05946 |

Major Second | 9/8 = 1.1250 | 1.12246 |

Minor Third | 6/5 = 1.2000 | 1.18921 |

Major Third | 5/4 = 1.2500 | 1.25992 |

Fourth | 4/3 = 1.3333 | 1.33483 |

Diminished Fifth | 45/32 = 1.4063 | 1.41421 |

Fifth | 3/2 = 1.5000 | 1.49831 |

Minor Sixth | 8/5 = 1.6000 | 1.58740 |

Major Sixth | 5/3 = 1.6667 | 1.68179 |

Minor Seventh | 9/5 = 1.8000 | 1.78180 |

Major Seventh | 15/8 = 1.8750 | 1.88775 |

Octave | 2.0000 | 2.0000 |

You will note that the most "pleasing" musical intervals above are those which have a frequency ratio of relatively small integers. Some authors have slightly different ratios for some of these intervals, and the Just scale actually defines more notes than we usually use. For example, the "augmented fourth" and "diminished fifth," which are assumed to be the same in the table, are actually not the same.

The set of 12 notes above (plus all notes related by octaves)
form the chromatic scale.
The Pentatonic (5-note)
scales are formed using
a subset of five of these notes. The common western
scales include seven of these notes, and
Chords
are formed using combinations of these notes.

As an example, the chart below shows the frequencies of the notes
(in Hz) for C Major, starting on middle C (C4), for just and equal
temperament. For the purposes of this chart, it is assumed that
C4 = 261.63 Hz is used for both (this gives A4 = 440 Hz for
the equal tempered scale).

Note | Just Scale | Equal Temperament |
Difference |
---|---|---|---|

C4 | 261.63 | 261.63 | 0 |

C4# | 272.54 | 277.18 | +4.64 |

D4 | 294.33 | 293.66 | -0.67 |

E4b | 313.96 | 311.13 | -2.84 |

E4 | 327.03 | 329.63 | +2.60 |

F4 | 348.83 | 349.23 | +0.40 |

F4# | 367.92 | 369.99 | +2.07 |

G4 | 392.44 | 392.00 | -0.44 |

A4b | 418.60 | 415.30 | -3.30 |

A4 | 436.05 | 440.00 | +3.94 |

B4b | 470.93 | 466.16 | -4.77 |

B4 | 490.55 | 493.88 | +3.33 |

C5 | 523.25 | 523.25 | 0 |

Since your ear can easily hear a difference of less than 1 Hz for sustained notes, differences of several Hz can be quite significant!

Listen to the difference:

The first second of this WAV file contains a major triad
starting on F# (F# - A# - C#) using the Just scale
appropriate for C Major. The last part of the file contains
the same triad but using the Just scale appropriate for F# Major.
(This is one of the worst case situations).

Tuning Shift WAV file.

Here's another example to test your ears. The following
WAV file has two "players" playing a C major scale. One
of the players is using the Just Scale, the other the
Equal Tempered scale. Both start on exactly the same pitch.
See if you can hear the notes where the pitches are different by
listening for the beats.

Major scales in different temperaments

Equal Tempered Scale - Table of frequencies

For a detailed list of historical temperaments see:

"Tuning: containing the perfection of eighteenth-century
temperament, the lost art of nineteenth-century temperament, and
the science of equal temperament, complete with
instructions for aural and electronic tuning," by Owen H. Jorgensen,
Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, MI 1991. (This is
an expensive reference book -- you might wish to look for a
copy in your library rather than in a book store).

There are no pop-ups or ads of any kind on these pages. If you are seeing them, they are being added by a third party without the consent of the author.

Questions/Comments to: suits@mtu.eduTo Physics of Music Notes

To MTU Physics Dept Home Page

Copyright info