Virunga references


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Aoki, K., and H. Kurasawa, 1984. Sr isotope study of the tephrite series from Nyamuragira volcano, Zaire. Geochemical Journal, 18(2), 95-100.

Aoki, K.I., T. Yoshida, K. Yusa, and Y. Nakamura. 1985. Petrology and geochemistry of the Nyamuragira volcano, Zaire. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 25, 1-28.

Bailey and Hampton, 1990. Volatiles in alkaline magmas. Lithos, 26 (1-2), pp 157-165.

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Bluth, G.J.S., and S.A. Carn, 2008. Exceptional sulphur degassing from Nyamuragira volcano, 1979-2005, Int. J. Remote Sensing (in press).

Bowen, N.L., 1929. Central African volcanoes in 1929. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 10th and 11th Annual Meetings, 1929 and 1930, pp. 301-307.

Brousse, R., J.-J. Cocheme, Y. Pottier, and P.-J. Vellutini, 1979. Eruption and nature of the lava from Murara: a new adventive cone (December 1976 – April 1977) of Nyamuragira in Kivu (Zaire). C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Serie II, 289, 809-812.

Brousse, R., J.-P.H. Caron, A.B. Kampunzu, and R.T. Lubala, 1983. Rugarambira: a new adventive cone of Nyamulagira active from December 1981 to January 1982 (central African Rift Valley, Kivu). C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Serie II, 296, 813-818.

Burt, M.L., Wadge, G. & Scott, W.A. 1994. Simple stochastic modeling of the eruption history of a basaltic volcano: Nyamuragira, Zaire. Bulletin of Volcanology, 56, 87-97.

Carn, S.A. 2004. Eruptive and passive degassing of sulfur dioxide at Nyiragongo volcano (D.R. Congo): the 17 January 2002 eruption and its aftermath. Acta Vulcanologica 14-15, 75-86.

Carn, S.A. & Bluth, G.J.S. 2003. Prodigious sulfur dioxide emissions from Nyamuragira volcano, D.R. Congo. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(23), 2211, doi:10.1029/2003GL018465.

Carn, S.A., Krueger, A.J., Bluth, G.J.S., Schaefer, S.J., Krotkov, N.A., Watson, I.M. & Datta, S. 2003. Volcanic eruption detection by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments: a 22-year record of sulfur dioxide and ash emissions. In: Volcanic Degassing (eds. C. Oppenheimer, D.M. Pyle and J. Barclay), Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 213, pp.177-202.

Chaigneau, M., H. Tazieff, and R. Fabre, 1960. Composition des gaz volcaniques du lac de lave permanent du Nyiragongo (Congo Belge). C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 250(14), 2482-2485.

Deliens, M., 1974. Les sublimes du Rugarama (Region du Kivu, Republique du Zaire). Bull. Volcanol., 38(1), 124-135.

Demant, A., Lestrade, P., Lubala, R.T., Kampunzu, A.B. & Durieux, J. 1994. Volcanological and petrological evolution of Nyiragongo volcano, Virunga volcanic field, Zaire. Bulletin of Volcanology, 56, 47-61.

Denaeyer M E, 1969. Nouvelles donnees lithologiques sur les volcans actifs des Virunga (Afrique centrale). Bull Volcanol., 33, 1128-1144.

Gerlach, T.M. 1980. Chemical characteristics of the volcanic gases from Nyiragongo lava lake and the generation of CH4-rich fluid inclusions in alkaline rocks. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 8, 177-189.

Hamaguchi, H. (ed), 1983. Volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira: Geophysical Aspects. Sendai: Tohoku Univ Fac Sci, 130 pp.

Hamaguchi, H., Nishimura, T. & Zana, N. 1992. Process of the 1977 Nyiragongo eruption inferred from the analysis of long-period earthquakes and volcanic tremors. Tectonophysics, 209, 241-254.

Hayashi, S., M. Kasahara, K. Tanaka, H. Hamaguchi, and N. Zana, 1992. Major element chemistry of recent eruptive products from Nyamuragira volcano, Africa (1976-1989). Tectonophysics, 209, 273-276.

Kampunzu, A. B., Lubala, R. T., Brousse, R., Caron, J. P.-H., Cluzel, D., Lenoble, L., Vellutini, P. J., 1984. Sur l'eruption du Nyamulagira de Decembre 1981 a Janvier 1982: cone et coulee du Rugarambiro (Kivu, Zaire). Bull Volcanol., 47, 79-105.

Kasahara, M., H. Hamaguchi, K. Tanaka, N. Zana, and M. Kabwick. 1992. Recent horizontal crustal movements in and around volcano Nyamuragira, Zaire. Tectonophysics, 209(1-4), 267-272.

Katabarwa, J.-B., R. Brousse, R.T. Lubala, and C. Thouin, 1986. Construction of Kivandimwe (from February to March 1984), two new adventive cones on the north-west flank of Nyamuragira (Birunga volcanic chain, Zaire). C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Serie II, 302, 1249-1252.

Krafft, M. & K. Krafft, 1983. La réapparition du lac de lave dans le cratère du volcan Nyiragongo de juin à septembre 1982 (Kivu-Zaire). Histoire, dynamisme, débits et risques volcaniques. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Série II, 296, 797-802.

Krafft M., 1990. Fuhrer zu den Virunga-Vulkanen. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke, 187 pp.

Krueger, A.J., Schnetzler, C.C. & Walter, L.S. 1996. The December 1981 eruption of Nyamuragira volcano (Zaire), and the origin of the ‘mystery cloud’ of early 1982. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101(D10), 15191-15196.

Le Guern, F. 1987. Mechanism of energy transfer in the lava lake of Niragongo (Zaire), 1959-1977. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 31, 17-31.

Le Guern, F., Tazieff, H., Vavasseur, C. & Carbonelle, J. 1977. Heat and gas transfer from the Nyiragongo lava lake. EOS Trans. American Geophysical Union, 58:920.

Leonard, A., 1959. Contribution a l’etude de la colonization des laves du volcan Nyamuragira par les vegetaux. Vegetatio, 8(4), 250-258.

Mackay, M.E., and P. Mouginis-Mark, 1997. The effect of varying acquisition parameters on the interpretation of SIR-C radar data: the Virunga volcanic chain. Remote Sens. Environ., 59, 321-336.

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NASA Earth Observatory Newsroom, 2006. Eruption of Mount Nyamulagira (Nyamuragira).

Oppenheimer, C., 1998. Satellite observations of lava lake activity at Nyiragongo volcano, ex-Zaire, during the Rwandan refugee crisis. Disasters, 22(3), 268-281.

Platz, T., S.F. Foley and L. André. 2004. Low-pressure fractionation of the Nyiragongo volcanic rocks, Virunga province, D.R. Congo. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 136, 269-295.

Pottier Y, 1978. Premiere eruption historique du Nyiragongo et manifestations adventives simultanees du Volcan Nyamulagira (Chaine des VIrunga - Kivu - Zaire: Dec. 76 - Jiun 77). Mus Roy Afr Centr, Tervuren (Belg), Dept Geol Mineral, Rapp Ann 1977, p 157-175

Pouclet, A. 1973. Contribution à la connaissance du volcan Nyiragongo (Rift ouest-africain). Les eruptions intra-cratèrales de juillet 1971 à avril 1972. Bull. Volcanol., 37, 37-72.

Pouclet, A. 1974. Pétrographie du Rugarama, dernier cone adventif du volcan Nyamuragira (1971) (Rift W. Africain). Bull. Volcanol., 2(38), 397-424.

Pouclet, A., 1975. Activites du Volcan Nyamuragira (rift ouest de l'Afrique centrale), evaluation des volumes de materiaux emis. Bull Volcanol., 39, 466-478.

Pouclet, A., and M. Villeneuve, 1972. L’eruption du Rugarama (mars-mai 1971) au volcan Nyamuragira (Rep. Zaire). Bull Volcanol., 36, 200-221.

Rodriguez, K.M., J.K. Weissel, and W.H. Menke, 2001. Lava-flow textural trends using SAR: the Virunga volcanic chain, East Africa. Proc. IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing Symposium, 2001, IGARSS ’01, doi: 10.1109/IGARSS.2001.978022.

Sahama, T.G., 1973. Evolution of the Nyiragongo magma. J. Petrol., 14, 33-48.

Sawyer, G.M., S.A. Carn, C. Oppenheimer, V.I. Tsanez, M. Burton (2008). Investigation into magma degassing at Nyiragongo volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 9, Q02017, doi:10.1029/2007GC001829.

Scaillet, B., and R. MacDonald, 2006. Experimental and Thermodynamic Constraints on the Sulphur Yield of Peralkaline and Metaluminous Silicic Flood Eruptions. J. Petrol., 47(7), 1413-1437.

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Tanaka, K. (ed), 1988. Geophysical Studies of Volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira. Hirosaki: Hirosaki Univ Fac Sci, 78 pp (in Japanese with English abs).

Tazieff, H., 1949. Première exploration du cratère du volcan Nyiragongo. Bull. Soc. Belge Géol., 58, 165-172.

Tazieff, H., 1977. An exceptional eruption: Mt. Nyiragongo, Jan 10th, 1977. Bulletin of Volcanology, 40, 189-200.

Tazieff, H., 1979. Nyiragongo, the forbidden volcano. Barron’s/Woodbury, New York, 287 pp.

Tazieff, H., 1984. Mt. Nyiragongo: renewed activity of the lava lake. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 20, 267-280.

Tazieff, H., 1994. Permanent lava lakes: observed facts and induced mechanisms. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 63, 3-11.

Tedesco, D., O. Vaselli, P. Papale, S.A. Carn, M. Voltaggio, G.M. Sawyer, J. Durieux, M. Kasereka, F. Tassi, 2007. The January 2002 Eruption of Nyiragongo volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo. J. Geophys. Res. (in press)